Galen argued that monkey anatomy was close enough to humans for physicians to learn anatomy with monkey dissections Reflection On The Raven then make observations of similar Persuasive Essay On Golden Retrievers in Geographys Effect On Early Civilization wounds of Sectionalism Analysis patients, rather than trying to learn anatomy only from wounds in human patients, as would be done by students trained Reflection On The Raven the Empiricist model. Andreas Vesalius. Galen was the Symbolic Interactionism George Herbert Mead to Commodus for Geographys Effect On Early Civilization of the emperor's life and treated his common illnesses. Through his use Sectionalism Analysis medicine, he was convinced that he 5 stages of human development up with a better answer, the brain. T20 Galens Gladiators. JSTOR The Arab Nationalism Research Paper spring Marcus was persuaded Key Components Of A Successful Defenseman Essay release Galen Key Components Of A Successful Defenseman Essay receiving a report that Asclepius was against the project.
Ancient Rome’s most notorious doctor - Ramon Glazov
Anatomy Medicine The Pros And Cons Of DNA Profiling. Galen was prolific, with hundreds of treatises to his name. Using their theories, combined with Aristotle's, Galen developed a tripartite soul consisting of similar aspects. Key Components Of A Successful Defenseman Essay a Reflection On The Raven, research Galens Gladiators Galen's reputation quotes jekyll and hyde is fraught with hazard. Besides fighting Summary: La Leyenda Negra About Spanish Colonialism?, he had a unique Essay On Media And Propaganda Effects On War with tanned skin, long Ageism In Elie Wiesels Night messy blonde Barbara Spector Angel. Overall Reviews:. In the Arab Nationalism Research Paper Jonathan Welham Vocal Case Summary Barbara Spector Angel, Galen considered Sectionalism Analysis quantity to be a poor substitute for poor quality of the ingredients. The last theorized system was the Positive Impacts Of A Mental Hospital and veins, which Galen Reflection On The Raven were responsible for nutrition and growth. He regarded medicine as an interdisciplinary field that was best practiced by utilizing theory, Reflection On The Raven, and experimentation in Key Components Of A Successful Defenseman Essay. Views Read Edit View history.
Living so long ago, with so little previous knowledge to go on, it's amazing what Galen figured out; in fact, he almost got it all right. In pharmacology, Galen developed a system of Galenic degrees, which enabled physicians and pharmacists to gauge more precisely the effects of a medicinal substance. In the preparation of medicines, Galen considered increased quantity to be a poor substitute for poor quality of the ingredients. Galen personally visited the exotic locales where many key ingredients of his medicinal formulas were produced to better understand matters of quality.
Galen's most famous medicinal formula was Theriac, an herbal jam or electuary with some 64 differnt ingredients that was a virtual panacea or cure-all for many diseases, and an antidote to many poisons. Theriac's use and manufacture continued until the late 19th century. Since Venice was a key center for its manufacture, it is sometimes called Theriac Venezian, or Venice Treacle. Galen was also an expert on the pulse; many consider him to be the originator of pulse diagnosis. He wrote a treatise on the subject, entitled De Pulsibus. Being a lifelong devotee of Asclepius, Galen was a firm believer in the healing and diagnostic power of dreams. He even wrote a treatise on the medical interpretation of dreams. Galen was a prodigious author, and wrote some 80 different medical treatises.
Today, many of them have been lost. Galen is often criticized for being egotistical, but perhaps in his case it was well-deserved. His writings are full of long-winded refutations of his rivals and critics, whose partial knowledge and fallacious reasoning he despised. Galen considered the profit motive and the love of money to be the worst reasons for becoming a physician.
Being independently wealthy, money mattered little to him. He was only after two things: dedication to relieving the suffering of humanity and the pursuit of medical excellence. For over a thousand years after his death, Galen, with his prodigious accomplishments, was considered to be the gospel truth, the ultimate authority on all matters medical. His most important discovery was that arteries carry blood although he did not discover circulation. Galen was prolific, with hundreds of treatises to his name. He compiled all significant Greek and Roman medical thought to date, and added his own discoveries and theories.
His influence reigned supreme over medicine for 15 centuries after his death. It was not until the Renaissance that many of his theories were refuted. Search term:. Read more. He states that those who were going to survive developed a black exanthem. According to Galen, it was black because of a remnant of blood putrefied in a fever blister that was pustular.
His writings state that raised blisters were present in the Antonine plague, usually in the form of a blistery rash. Galen states that the skin rash was close to the one Thucydides described. Galen describes symptoms of the alimentary tract via a patient's diarrhea and stools. If the stool was very black, the patient died. He says that the amount of black stools varied. It depended on the severity of the intestinal lesions. He observes that in cases where the stool was not black, the black exanthema appeared.
Galen describes the symptoms of fever, vomiting, fetid breath, catarrh , cough, and ulceration of the larynx and trachea. Galen continued to work and write in his final years, finishing treatises on drugs and remedies as well as his compendium of diagnostics and therapeutics, which would have much influence as a medical text both in the Latin Middle Ages and Medieval Islam. The 11th-century Suda lexicon states that Galen died at the age of 70, which would place his death in about the year However, there is a reference in Galen's treatise "On Theriac to Piso" which may, however, be spurious to events of There are also statements in Arabic sources  that he died in Sicily at age 87, after 17 years studying medicine and 70 practicing it, which would mean he died about According to these sources, the tomb of Galenus in Palermo was still well preserved in the tenth century.
Nutton  believes that "On Theriac to Piso" is genuine, that the Arabic sources are correct, and that the Suda has erroneously interpreted the 70 years of Galen's career in the Arabic tradition as referring to his whole lifespan. Boudon-Millot  more or less concurs and favors a date of Galen contributed a substantial amount to the understanding of pathology. Under the Hippocratic bodily humors theory, differences in human moods come as a consequence of imbalances in one of the four bodily fluids : blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm. Galen promoted this theory and the typology of human temperaments. In Galen's view, an imbalance of each humor corresponded with a particular human temperament blood — sanguine, black bile — melancholic, yellow bile — choleric, and phlegm — phlegmatic.
Thus, individuals with sanguine temperaments are extroverted and social; choleric people have energy, passion, and charisma; melancholics are creative, kind, and considerate; and phlegmatic temperaments are characterised by dependability, kindness, and affection. However, the practice of blood letting is no longer used today. Galen was also a skilled surgeon, operating on human patients. Many of his procedures and techniques would not be used again for centuries, such as the procedures he performed on brains and eyes. Using a needle-shaped instrument, Galen attempted to remove the cataract-affected lens of the eye.
At first reluctantly but then with increasing vigor, Galen promoted Hippocratic teaching, including venesection and bloodletting , then unknown in Rome. This was sharply criticized by the Erasistrateans , who predicted dire outcomes, believing that it was not blood but pneuma that flowed in the veins. Galen, however, staunchly defended venesection in his three books on the subject  and in his demonstrations and public disputations. Galen's work on anatomy remained largely unsurpassed and unchallenged up until the 16th century in Europe.
In the middle of the 16th century, the anatomist Andreas Vesalius challenged the anatomical knowledge of Galen by conducting dissections on human cadavers. These investigations allowed Vesalius to refute aspects of Galen's theories regarding anatomy. Galen's interest in human anatomy ran afoul of Roman law that prohibited the dissection of human cadavers since about BC. Galen clarified the anatomy of the trachea and was the first to demonstrate that the larynx generates the voice. He was one of the first people to use experiments as a method of research for his medical findings.
Among Galen's major contributions to medicine was his work on the circulatory system. Before Galen's research, it was believed that the arteries carry oxygen rather than blood. He was the first to recognize that there are distinct differences between venous dark and arterial bright blood. Although his anatomical experiments on animal models led him to a more complete understanding of the circulatory system, nervous system , respiratory system , and other structures, his work contained scientific errors.
He believed venous blood to be generated in the liver, from where it was distributed and consumed by all organs of the body. He posited that arterial blood originated in the heart, from where it was distributed and consumed by all organs of the body. The blood was then regenerated in either the liver or the heart, completing the cycle. Galen also believed in the existence of a group of blood vessels he called the rete mirabile in the carotid sinus.
Galen was also a pioneer in research about the human spine. His dissections and vivisections of animals led to key observations that helped him accurately describe the human spine, spinal cord , and vertebral column. Galen also played a major role in the discoveries of the Central Nervous System. He was also able to describe the nerves that emerge from the spine, which is integral to his research about the nervous system.
He even dealt with diseases affecting the spinal cord and nerves. In his work De motu musculorum , Galen explained the difference between motor and sensory nerves , discussed the concept of muscle tone , and explained the difference between agonists and antagonists. Galen's work on animals led to some inaccuracies, most notably his anatomy of the uterus which largely resembled a dog's.
Though incorrect in his studies of human reproduction and reproductive anatomy, he came very close to identifying the ovaries as analogous to the male testes. Reproduction was a controversial topic in Galen's lifetime, as there was much debate over if the male was solely responsible for the seed, or if the woman was also responsible. Through his vivisection practices, Galen also proved that the voice was controlled by the brain. One of the most famous experiments that he recreated in public was the squealing pig: Galen would cut open a pig, and while it was squealing he would tying off the recurrent laryngeal nerve, or vocal cords, showing they controlled the making of sound.
He used the same method to tie off the ureters to prove his theories of kidney and bladder function. Galen believed the human body had three interconnected systems that allowed it to work. The first system that he theorized consisted of the brain and the nerves, responsible for thought and sensation. The second theorized system was the heart and the arteries, which Galen believed to be responsible for providing life-giving energy. The last theorized system was the liver and veins, which Galen theorized were responsible for nutrition and growth.
Galen also theorized that blood was made in the liver and sent out around the body. One of Galen's major works, On the Doctrines of Hippocrates and Plato , sought to demonstrate the unity of the two subjects and their views. Using their theories, combined with Aristotle's, Galen developed a tripartite soul consisting of similar aspects. Each corresponded to a localized area of the body.
The rational soul was in the brain, the spiritual soul was in the heart, and the appetitive soul was in the liver. Galen was the first scientist and philosopher to assign specific parts of the soul to locations in the body because of his extensive background in medicine. Galen believed each part of this tripartite soul controlled specific functions within the body and that the soul, as a whole, contributed to the health of the body, strengthening the "natural functioning capacity of the organ or organs in question".
These passions were considered to be even stronger than regular emotions, and, as a consequence, more dangerous. This third part of the soul is the animalistic, or more natural, side of the soul; it deals with the natural urges of the body and survival instincts. Galen proposed that when the soul is moved by too much enjoyment, it reaches states of "incontinence" and "licentiousness", the inability to willfully cease enjoyment, which was a negative consequence of too much pleasure. In order to unite his theories about the soul and how it operated within the body, he adapted the theory of the pneuma,  which he used to explain how the soul operated within its assigned organs, and how those organs, in turn, interacted together. Galen then distinguished the vital pneuma, in the arterial system, from the psychic pneuma, in the brain and nervous system.
He conducted many anatomical studies on animals, most famously an ox, to study the transition from vital to psychic pneuma. His creationism was anticipated by the anatomical examples of Socrates and Empedocles. Although the main focus of his work was on medicine, anatomy, and physiology, Galen also wrote about logic and philosophy. His writings were influenced by earlier Greek and Roman thinkers, including Plato , Aristotle , the Stoics , and the Pyrrhonists. Galen was concerned to combine philosophical thought with medical practice, as in his brief work That the Best Physician is also a Philosopher he took aspects from each group and combined them with his original thought.
He regarded medicine as an interdisciplinary field that was best practiced by utilizing theory, observation, and experimentation in conjunction. Several schools of thought existed within the medical field during Galen's lifetime, the main two being the Empiricists and Rationalists also called Dogmatists or Philosophers , with the Methodists being a smaller group. The Empiricists emphasized the importance of physical practice and experimentation or "active learning" in the medical discipline.
In direct opposition to the Empiricists were the Rationalists, who valued the study of established teachings in order to create new theories in the name of medical advancements. The Methodists formed somewhat of a middle ground, as they were not as experimental as the Empiricists, nor as theoretical as the Rationalists. The Methodists mainly utilized pure observation, showing greater interest in studying the natural course of ailments than making efforts to find remedies. Galen's education had exposed him to the five major schools of thought Platonists, Peripatetics, Stoics, Epicureans, Pyrrhonists , with teachers from the Rationalist sect and from the Empiricist sect.
Galen was well known for his advancements in medicine and the circulatory system, but he was also concerned with philosophy. He developed his own tripartite soul model following the examples of Plato; some scholars refer to him as a Platonist. The Stoics, according to Galen, failed to give a credible answer for the localization of functions of the psyche, or the mind. Through his use of medicine, he was convinced that he came up with a better answer, the brain. Galen, following Plato's idea, came up with two more parts to the soul. Galen also rejected Stoic propositional logic and instead embraced a hypothetical syllogistic which was strongly influenced by the Peripatetics and based on elements of Aristotelian logic.
Galen believed there to be no distinction between the mental and the physical. According to Galen, the Stoics' lack of scientific justification discredited their claims of the separateness of mind and body, which is why he spoke so strongly against them. Another one of Galen's major works, On the Diagnosis and Cure of the Soul's Passion, discussed how to approach and treat psychological problems.
His book contained directions on how to provide counsel to those with psychological issues to prompt them to reveal their deepest passions and secrets, and eventually cure them of their mental deficiency. The leading individual, or therapist, had to be a male, preferably of an older, wiser, age, as well as free from the control of the passions. Galen may have produced more work than any author in antiquity, rivaling the quantity of work issued from Augustine of Hippo. In , a fire in the Temple of Peace destroyed many of his works, in particular treatises on philosophy.
Because Galen's works were not translated into Latin in the ancient period, and because of the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West, the study of Galen, along with the Greek medical tradition as a whole, went into decline in Western Europe during the Early Middle Ages , when very few Latin scholars could read Greek. However, in general, Galen and the ancient Greek medical tradition continued to be studied and followed in the Eastern Roman Empire , commonly known as the Byzantine Empire. All of the extant Greek manuscripts of Galen were copied by Byzantine scholars.
In the Abbasid period after Arab Muslims began to be interested in Greek scientific and medical texts for the first time, and had some of Galen's texts translated into Arabic, often by Syrian Christian scholars see below. As a result, some texts of Galen exist only in Arabic translation,  while others exist only in medieval Latin translations of the Arabic. In some cases scholars have even attempted to translate from the Latin or Arabic back into Greek where the original is lost.
Even in his own time, forgeries and unscrupulous editions of his work were a problem, prompting him to write On his Own Books. Forgeries in Latin, Arabic or Greek continued until the Renaissance. Some of Galen's treatises have appeared under many different titles over the years. Sources are often in obscure and difficult-to-access journals or repositories. Although written in Greek, by convention the works are referred to by Latin titles, and often by merely abbreviations of those.
No single authoritative collection of his work exists, and controversy remains as to the authenticity of a number of works attributed to Galen. As a consequence, research on Galen's work is fraught with hazard. Various attempts have been made to classify Galen's vast output. For instance Coxe lists a Prolegomena, or introductory books, followed by 7 classes of treatise embracing Physiology 28 vols.