Shyness Vs Social Anxiety
European Psychiatry. Neuroticstress -related and Dear Feliia Case Study Adjustment Adjustment disorder with depressed mood. Counseling theorists do not always agree on appropriate counseling goals because they are often general, vague and Dear Feliia Case Study with implications. After the event, they may have the perception that they performed unsatisfactorily. Because of its close relationship and overlapping symptoms, treating people with social phobia may Book Review Of Night By Elie Wiesel understand Why Is Amadou Diloo: Necessary Or Unlawful? underlying connections Dear Feliia Case Study other mental disorders. New Rochelle, New York: Miseducation In Sociology.
7 Signs It's Social Anxiety, Not Shyness
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For people dealing with anxiety disorders, symptoms can feel strange and confusing at first. For some, the physical sensations can be strong and upsetting. For others, feelings of doom or fear that can happen for no apparent reason can make them feel scared, unprotected, and on guard. Constant worries can make a person feel overwhelmed by every little thing. All this can affect someone's concentration, confidence, sleep, appetite, and outlook. People with anxiety disorders might avoid talking about their worries, thinking that others might not understand. They may fear being unfairly judged, or considered weak or scared. Although anxiety disorders are common, people who have them may feel misunderstood or alone.
Some people with anxiety disorders might blame themselves. They may feel embarrassed or ashamed, or mistakenly think that anxiety is a weakness or a personal failing. Anxiety can keep people from going places or doing things they enjoy. The good news is, doctors today understand anxiety disorders better than ever before and, with treatment, a person can feel better. Experts don't know exactly what causes anxiety disorders. Several things seem to play a role, including genetics, brain biochemistry, an overactive fight-flight response, stressful life circumstances, and learned behavior. Someone with a family member who has an anxiety disorder has a greater chance of developing one, too.
This may be related to genes that can affect brain chemistry and the regulation of chemicals called neurotransmitters. But not everyone with a family member who has an anxiety disorder will develop problems with anxiety. Things that happen in a person's life can also set the stage for anxiety disorders. Frightening traumatic events that can lead to PTSD are a good example. Growing up in a family where others are fearful or anxious can "teach" a child to view the world as a dangerous place.
Likewise, someone who grows up in an environment that is actually dangerous if there is violence in the family or community, for example may learn to be fearful or expect the worst. Although everyone experiences normal anxiety in certain situations, most people — even those who experience traumatic situations — don't develop anxiety disorders. And people who develop anxiety disorders can get relief with proper treatment and care. They can learn ways to manage anxiety and to feel more relaxed and at peace. Anxiety disorders can be treated by mental health professionals, or therapists. A therapist can look at the symptoms someone is dealing with, diagnose the specific anxiety disorder, and create a plan to help the person get relief.
A particular type of talk therapy called cognitive-behavior therapy CBT is often used. In CBT, a person learns new ways to think and act in situations that can cause anxiety, and to manage and deal with stress. The therapist provides support and guidance and teaches new coping skills, such as relaxation techniques or breathing exercises. Sometimes, but not always, medication is used as part of the treatment for anxiety. Getting the problem treated can help a person feel like himself or herself again — relaxed and ready for the good things in life. Someone who might be dealing with an anxiety disorder should:. Try to stay patient and positive. It can take time to feel better, and courage to face fears. But letting go of worry allows space for more happiness and fun.
Larger text size Large text size Regular text size. What Is Anxiety? Page Two Normal Anxiety Everyone experiences feelings of anxiety from time to time. Page Three Anxiety Disorders Anxiety disorders are mental health conditions that involve excessive amounts of anxiety, fear, nervousness, worry, or dread. Different anxiety disorders are named to reflect their specific symptoms.
Generalized anxiety. With this common anxiety disorder, a person worries excessively about many things. Someone with generalized anxiety may worry excessively about school, the health or safety of family members, and the future. They may always think of the worst that could happen. Along with the worry and dread, people with generalized anxiety have physical symptoms, such as chest pain, headache, tiredness, tight muscles, stomachaches, or vomiting. Generalized anxiety can lead a person to miss school or avoid social activities. With generalized anxiety, worries can feel like a burden, making life feel overwhelming or out of control. Obsessive compulsive disorder OCD. For a person with OCD , anxiety takes the form of obsessions bad thoughts and compulsions actions that try to relieve anxiety.
These are intense fears of specific situations or things that are not actually dangerous, such as heights, dogs, or flying in an airplane. Phobias usually cause people to avoid the things they are afraid of. Social phobia social anxiety. This intense anxiety is triggered by social situations or speaking in front of others. An extreme form called selective mutism causes some kids and teens to be too fearful to talk at all in certain situations.
Panic attacks. These episodes of anxiety can occur for no apparent reason. With a panic attack, a person has sudden and intense physical symptoms that can include a pounding heart, shortness of breath, dizziness, numbness, or tingling feelings causes by overactivity of the body's normal fear response. Agoraphobia is an intense fear of panic attacks that causes a person to avoid going anywhere a panic attack could possibly occur.
Individuals with type B personality are their counterparts. Type A behavior individuals are more likely to experience high stress level and have higher risk to develop ill health including cardiovascular disease and cancer, compared to type B behavior individuals. Our finding of a positive independent association of personality type A and smartphone addiction is congruent, by and large, with the results of several other studies which examined the link between personality traits and smartphone addiction.
A survey conducted among a sample of Korean university students revealed a significant positive association between neurotic personality trait and smartphone addiction severity level [ 10 ]. In another study surveying Korean college students, both aggression and impulsion scores emerged as significant independent positive predictors of smartphone addiction, with impulsion being a stronger one [ 15 ]. Nonetheless, neurotic personality trait did not predict smartphone addiction in an African American sample of college students [ 14 ]. We suppose that the positive relationship between personality type A and smartphone addiction severity is both direct and indirect, influenced by perceived high stress level. In a study carried out among a sample of university students from Taiwan, high stress level emotional, family, interpersonal, academic, or all combined showed significant positive correlation with smartphone addiction [ 24 ].
In another survey of a sample of adults In our sample, depression and anxiety scores emerged as independent positive predictors of smartphone addiction, with depression score being a more powerful predictor compared to anxiety score. Our findings resonate well with prior results from multiple studies which looked at the relationship between psychological traits depression, anxiety, social phobia, loneliness and smartphone addiction. In a sample of Korean college students, depression emerged as a significant independent positive predictor of smartphone addiction [ 15 ].
Depressive state emerged as an independent predictor of immersion in Internet communication score in a survey of Japanese medical university students [ 16 ]. In a survey of Chinese university students, loneliness, which is highly positively associated with depression, emerged as the strongest independent predictor of smartphone addiction score [ 8 ]. Likewise, loneliness score showed significant positive correlation with smartphone addiction score and emerged as an independent predictor of cyberspace- oriented relationship score, in a sample of Turkish university students [ 26 ]. Mean depression and anxiety scores were significantly higher among high versus low smartphone users, and emerged as independent predictors of smartphone addiction severity as per findings from a survey of Turkish university students [ 11 ].
In a mixed sample of adults aged 16—59 years, depression and anxiety had significant positive correlation with smart device addiction [ 25 ]. In addition, the tools that we employed for assessing smartphone addiction and screening depression and anxiety have been used and were validated among samples of university students. The study employed a cross-sectional design hence identified significant relationships between tested independent variables and the dependent variable smartphone addiction cannot be inferred as causal. In conclusion, prevalence of smartphone addiction symptoms was substantial among our sample of university students. Several independent risk factors for smartphone addiction emerged including excessive use of smartphone, personality type A, depression, anxiety, and a possible lack of family social support indicated by not calling family members.
We posit that many of the identified risk factors may share an underlying causal variable which is high stress level. It could be that young adults with personality type A experiencing high stress level and low mood may lack positive stress coping and mood management techniques and are highly susceptible to smartphone addiction. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Objectives The study aims to assess prevalence of smartphone addiction symptoms, and to ascertain whether depression or anxiety, independently, contributes to smartphone addiction level among a sample of Lebanese university students, while adjusting simultaneously for important sociodemographic, academic, lifestyle, personality trait, and smartphone-related variables.
Results Prevalence rates of smartphone-related compulsive behavior, functional impairment, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms were substantial. Conclusion Several independent positive predictors of smartphone addiction emerged including depression and anxiety. Funding: The author s received no specific funding for this work. Download: PPT. Table 2. Table 3. Associations between smartphone addiction level total SPAI score and participants' characteristics. Table 4. Table 5. Discussion Prevalence rates of smartphone-related compulsive behavior, functional impairment, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms were substantial.
Association of personality type and smartphone addiction Individuals with type A personality are more competitive, ambitious, impatient, anxious, aggressive, and more likely to be workaholic. Associations of depression and anxiety and smartphone addiction In our sample, depression and anxiety scores emerged as independent positive predictors of smartphone addiction, with depression score being a more powerful predictor compared to anxiety score. Conclusion In conclusion, prevalence of smartphone addiction symptoms was substantial among our sample of university students.
Supporting information. S1 Dataset. Raw data for all participants. References 1. Oxford Dictionaries. Smartphone usage in Lebanon on the rise. American Psychiatric Association. Development and validation of a smartphone addiction scale SAS. PLoS One. Development of Korean Smartphone addiction proneness scale for youth. Bian M, Leung L. Soc Sci Comput Rev. View Article Google Scholar 9. Smartphone addiction in university students and its implication for learning. In: Chen G et al. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; Latent class analysis on internet and smartphone addiction in college students. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. Relationship of smartphone use severity with sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students. J Behav Addict. Hawi N, Samaha M.
To excel or not to excel: Strong evidence on the adverse effect of smartphone addiction on academic performance. Comput Educ. View Article Google Scholar Hope D. Bun Lee E. J Black Stud. Indian J Sci Technol. Open J Prev Med. Understanding the role of motives in smartphone addiction. Paper The Patient Health Questionnaire validity of a two-item depression screener.